Top 10 greates painters ever

When talking about artist, we must admit that this world was lucky enough to host a lot of geniuses. We present you ten of the greatest painters in the world, whose lives were really interesting and whose work has made history.

10. Edvard Munch

Edvard Munch was a Norwegian painterand printmaker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th-century Symbolism and greatly influenced GermanExpressionism in the early 20th century. One of his most well-known works is The Scream of 1893.

 

9. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicilybetween 1592 (1595?) and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on the Baroque school of painting.

 

8. Wassily Kandinsky

Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (16 December [O.S. 4 December] 1866 – 13 December 1944) was an influential Russian painterand art theorist. He is credited with painting the first purely abstract works. Born inMoscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics. Successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship (chair of Roman Law) at the University of Dorpat—he began painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30.

 

 

7. Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (July 12, 1884 – January 24, 1920) was an Italian painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. Primarily a figurative artist, he became known for paintings and sculptures in amodern style, characterized by mask-like faces and elongation of form. He died at age 35 in Paris of tubercular meningitis, exacerbated by poverty, overwork and addiction toalcohol and narcotics.

 

6. Jackson Pollock

Paul Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956), known as Jackson Pollock, was an influential American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was well known for his unique style of drip painting.
During his lifetime, Pollock enjoyed considerable fame and notoriety, a major artist of his generation. Regarded as reclusive, he had a volatile personality, and struggled withalcoholism for most of his life. In 1945, he married the artist Lee Krasner, who became an important influence on his career and on his legacy.

 

5. Michelangelo Buonarroti
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci.

 

4. Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519, Old Style) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of “unquenchable curiosity” and “feverishly inventive imagination”.He is widely considered to be one of thegreatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and “his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote”. Marco Rosci states that while there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time.

 

3. Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, known as Pablo Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer who spent most of his adult life in France. As one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is widely known for co-founding the Cubistmovement, the invention of constructed sculpture,[2][3] the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.

 

2. Nicolae Grigorescu

He was also a writer. He was born in Pitaru, Dâmboviţa County, Wallachia. In 1843 the family moved to Bucharest. At a young age (between 1846 and 1850), he became an apprentice at the workshop of the painter Anton Chladek and created icons for the church of Băicoi and the monastery ofCăldăruşani. In 1856 he created the historical composition Mihai scăpând stindardul (Michael the Brave saving the flag), which he presented to the Wallachian Prince Barbu Ştirbei, together with a petition asking for financial aid for his studies.

 

1. Salvador Dali

Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marqués de Dalí de Pubol(May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), known as Salvador Dalí , was a prominent Spanish surrealist painter born in Figueres, in the Cataloniaregion of Spain.
Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in hissurrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissancemasters.His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in 1931. Dalí’s expansive artistic repertoire included film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media.

 

Top 10 rarest beautiful flowers in the world

Improve your general knowledge by finding out more about the rarest flowers on the Globe. Here we present you ten of the most beautiful and rare flowers on the planet. All of them are under law protection.

10. Ghost Orchid

Not only rare but fascinating, the Ghost Orchid is a plant that was presumed to be wiped out for almost 20 years and only recently materialized again. The plant is so rare because it is near-impossible to propagate. It has no leaves and does not use photosynthesis to manufacture its own food. The Ghost Orchid can live subversive for years and is only found in forests in Cuba, and another diversity, in Florida. The flowers emit perfumed odors and bloom between the months of June and August.


9. Campion

The Campion, or Silene tomentosa, was initially considered to be an extinct species of flower by the scientific community in 1992. However, this was not quite the case. In 1994 a most fortuitous event occurred for Campion enthusiasts around the world. A hiker, working through the rugged and imposing cliffs of Gibraltar, stumbled upon a single Campion specimen. From here, the fate of one of the rarest flowers ever was drastically altered. Below is an image of the Red Campion in the wild.

8. Kadupul Flower

While the Kadupul Flower, otherwise referred to as Epiphyllum oxypetalum, is not on the brink of extinction, it is rare for an entirely different reason. This flower can be found only in the forests of Sri Lanka and blooms only during the nighttime hours. This blooming is exceedingly rare and is properly viewed only under the most specific of circumstances. Once the blooming process is complete, the flower withers before the approach of dawn. Why this process occurs is unknown to botanists.

7. Parrot’s Beak

The Lotus berthelotii, or Parrot’s Beak, is one of the more stunning additions to this list. With a long stalk that has several flowers attached to it, few plants showcase the beauty of this offering. Each flower resembles the curvature of a parrot’s beak, giving the flower its unique name. The coloring of the petals is often a dark orange, with tints of red at the tips an yellow at the base.

6. Chocolate Cosmos

Also referred to as the Cosmos atrosanguineus, the Chocolate Cosmos is an interesting and rare flower. This offering is no longer found in the natural world. Once, the plant was indigenous to many areas in Mexico. However, wild variations of the flower went extinct at the turn of the 20th century. Thankfully, the Chocolate Cosmos was preserved in captivity and saved from joining a long line of extinct flowers.

5. Youtan Poluo

The Youtan Poluo, which has not been ascribed a scientific name, has a unique and mystifying set of origin stories. One story recounts the tale of a Chinese farmer, known only as Mr. Ding, who found this plant growing in a steel pipe on his property. Likewise, a nun named Lushan found a specimen growing in the dark recesses beneath her washing machine. While these initial encounters in modern times are intriguing, the past also takes note of the Youtan Poluo which is picture below.

4. Yellow and Purple Lady Slippers

As far as unique and rare offerings go, few flowers can match the Yellow and Purple Lady Slippers, also known as Cypripedium calceolus. This member of the orchid family has an odd and intriguing history attached to it. Initially Yellow and Purple Lady Slippers were found across almost all of Europe and the United Kingdom as well. However, shifts in populations, changes in the environment, and a weak approach to adaptation in general forced this flower to the brink of extinction.

 

 

3. Jade Vine

Located exclusively in the Philippines, the Jade Vine, otherwise known as Strongylodon macrobotrys, is a beautiful and rare specimen. The physical characteristics of this plant can be described as delicate and fascinating. The woody vine is covered in claw shaped flowers, giving it a unique look. These claw-like outcroppings sprout from hanging trusses and can grow up to three meters in length. The coloring of the flowers varies between a shade of mint green and a blue green tint.

 

2. Corpse Flower
The Corpse Flower is an oddity, even among its rare flower brethren. Also known as the Rafflesia arnoldii in scientific terms, this plant is found only in low lying rainforests that are scattered across the various islands of Indonesia. What makes this plant so intriguing is that its survival is based off of the existence of another species of plant altogether. Without the Tetrastigma Vine, the Corpse Flower would have been pushed out of existence long ago.

1. Middlemist Red

Few flowers can compare to the rarity of the Middlemist Red or Middlemist’s Red. Also known as the Middlemist camellia, this flower was once indigenous to several regions in China. However, time and the expansion of the industrial world have altered this plant to the point of a severe decline in its population. How severe is this decline? Only two are left in the entire world. Below is an image of this extremely rare flower.

Improve your general knowledge by finding out more about the rarest flowers on the Globe. Here we present you ten of the most beautiful and rare flowers on the planet. All of them are under law protection.

 

 

Top 10 best cat breeds in the world

Everyone loves cats. And if you are thinking about a pet, cats are a perfect companion. They are cute, independent and beautiful. They can be sweet and loving, it only depends on how you raise them.
10. American Shorthair

The American Shorthair (ASH) is a breed of domestic cat believed to be descended from European cats brought to North America by early settlers to protect valuable cargo from mice and rats, not a great variety of mixed breeds with short hair. According to the Cat Fancier’s Association, in 2012, it was the 7th most popular breed of cat in the United States.

9. Siamese Cat

The Siamese is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of Oriental cat. The breed originated in Thailand (formerly known asSiam), where they are one of several native breeds and are called Wichian Mat (a name meaning “moon diamond”). In the 20th century the Siamese cat became one of the most popular breeds in Europe and North America.

8. Bengal Cat

The Bengal is a hybrid breed of domestic cat. Bengals result from crossing a domestic feline with an Asian leopard cat (ALC), Prionailurus bengalensis bengalensis.
The Bengal cat has a desirable “wild” appearance with large spots, rosettes, and a light/white belly, and a body structure reminiscent of the ALC.The Bengal possesses a gentle domestic cat temperament, if separated by at least four generations from the original crossing between a domestic feline and an ALC.

7. Pixie bob

The Pixie-bob is a breed of domestic cat claimed by breed founder Carol Ann Brewer ofWashington state to be the progeny of naturally occurring bobcat hybrids. DNA testing have failed to detect bobcat marker genes and Pixie-bobs are considered wholly domestic for the purposes of ownership, cat fancy registration, import and export.

6. Chartreux
The Chartreux is a rare breed of domestic cat from France and is recognised by a number of registries around the world. It is not recognised by the GCCF in the UK, ostensibly for being too similar to the British Shorthair, one of whose colours is a similar blue-grey. The Chartreux is large and muscular, with relatively short, fine-boned limbs, and very fast reflexes. They are known for their blue (grey) water-resistant short hair double coats which are often slightly nappy in texture (often showing “breaks” like a sheepskin) and orange- or copper-colored eyes.

5. Bombay
Bombay are a breed of domestic shorthaired cats developed by breeding sable Burmese and black American Shorthair cats to produce a cat of mostly Burmese type, but with a sleek, tight black coat.

4. Scottish Fold

The Scottish Fold is a breed of cat with a natural dominant-gene mutation that makes its ear cartilage contain a fold, causing the ears to bend forward and down towards the front of their head, which gives the cat what is often described as an “owl-like” appearance.
Originally called lop-eared or just lops after the lop-eared rabbit, Scottish Fold became the breed’s name in 1966.

3. Ocicat

The Ocicat is an all-domestic breed of cat which resembles a wild cat but has no wildDNA in its gene pool. The breed is unusual in that it is spotted like a wild cat but has the temperament of a domestic animal. It is named for its resemblance to the ocelot. The breed was established from Siamese and Abyssinian stock; later, American Shorthairs(silver tabbies) were added to the mix and gave the breed their silver color, bone structure and distinct markings.

2. Munchkin

The Munchkin is a relatively new breed of cat characterized by its very short legs, which is caused by a naturally occurring genetic mutation. Named after the short-statured characters from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the breed was developed in the 1980s in theUnited States. Much controversy erupted over the breed when it was recognized by The International Cat Association in 1995 with critics voicing concern over potential health and mobility issues.

1. Birman

The Birman, also called the “Sacred Cat of Burma”, is a domestic cat breed. It should not be confused with the Burmese, which is a dissimilar breed. The Birman has medium-long hair, a pale colored body with darker points and deep blue eyes. Even though the cat is pointed, the paws have white gloves.

 

 

 

Top 10 most expensive dog breeds in the world

Everyone loves dogs. They are cute, loyal and really playful. Here are some things you might have not known about ten of the most expensive and appreciated dog breeds in the world. They also participate in competitions.

10. German Shepherd

The German Shepherd (aka Alsatian and Alsatian Wolf Dog), is a breed of large-sized dog that originated in Germany. German Shepherds are a relatively new breed of dog, with their origin dating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, German Shepherds are working dogs developed originally for herding sheep. Since that time, however, because of their strength, intelligence, trainability and obedience, German Shepherds around the world are often the preferred breed for many types of work, including search-and-rescue, police and military roles and even acting.


9. Irish Wolfhound

The Irish Wolfhound is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), specifically a sighthound. The name originates from its purpose (wolf hunting with dogs) rather than from its appearance. The breed was originally developed for use as war hounds as well as hunting and guarding its owners homes but over time it changed roles to become a modern day family pet. Irish Wolfhounds can be an imposing sight due to their formidable size; they are the tallest of all dog breeds.

8. Saluki

The Saluki, also known as the Persian Greyhound and Royal Dog of Egypt is one of the oldest known breeds of domesticated dog. There are petroglyphs and rock arts in Golpaygan and Khomein in central Iran that shows saluki-like hounds and falcons accompanying hunters chasing preys (ca. 8000–10,000 BCE). Also on the potteries found in Susa, Iran (ca. 4200 BCE) are images of saluki-like hounds chasing ibex or lying next to pools.

7. Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small spaniel classed as a toy dog by TheKennel Club. It is one of the most popular breeds in the United Kingdom. Since 2000, it has grown in popularity in the United States. It is a smaller breed of spaniel, and Cavalier adults are often the same size as adolescent dogs of other spaniel breeds. It has a silky, smooth coat and commonly a smooth undocked tail. The breed standard recognizes four colours: Blenheim, Tricolour (black/white/tan), Black and Tan, and Ruby.


6. Pharaoh Hound

The Pharaoh Hound is a breed of dog and the national hound of the Mediterranean nation of Malta. Its native name is Kelb tal-Fenek (plural: Klieb tal-Fenek) in Maltese, which means “Rabbit dog”. The dog is traditionally used by some Maltese men for hunting. Based on DNA analysis, the breed has no link with Ancient Egypt. However, the popular myth holds that the breed is descended from the Tesem, one of the ancient Egyptian hunting dogs.

5. Akita

he Akita is a large spitz breed of dog originating from the mountainous northern regions of Japan. There are two separate varieties of Akita: a Japanese strain, known as the “Akita Inu” or “Japanese Akita”; and an American strain, known as the “Akita” or “American Akita”. The Japanese strain comes in a small choice of colors, with all other colors considered atypical of the breed, while the American strain comes in all dog colors. The Akita has a short double coat, similar to that of many other northern spitz breeds such as the Siberian Husky, but long coated dogs can be found in many litters due to a recessive gene.

4. Tibetan Mastiff

The Tibetan Mastiff is an ancient breed andtype of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) originating with nomadic cultures of Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Tibet and Central Asia. The Tibetan Mastiff also known as dok-khyi ( translated as “dok-nomad, khi-dog”, “door guard”, “dog which may be tied”, “dog which may be kept”), reflects its use as a guardian of herds, flocks, tents, villages, monasteries, and palaces, much as the old English ban-dog (also meaning tied dog) was a dog tied outside the home as a guardian. However, in nomad camps and in villages, the do-khyi is traditionally allowed to run loose at night.

3. Rottweiler

The Rottweiler is a medium to large size breed of domestic dog. The dogs were known as “Rottweil butchers’ dogs” (German: Rottweiler Metzgerhund) because they were used to herd livestock and pull carts laden with butchered meat and other products to market.
The Rottweiler was employed in its traditional roles until the mid-19th century whenrailways replaced droving for herding livestock to market.

2. Chow Chow

The Chow Chow (sometimes simply Chow) is a type of dog breed originally fromChina, where it is referred to as Songshi Quan , which means “puffy-lion dog”. The Chow Chow is a sturdily built dog, square in profile, with a broad skull and small, triangular, erect ears with rounded tips. The breed is known for a very dense double coatthat is either smooth or rough. The fur is particularly thick in the neck area, giving it a distinctive ruff or mane appearance. The coat may be red, black, blue, cinnamon/fawn, or cream.

1. Samoyed

The Samoyed is a breed of dog that takes its name from the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. These nomadic reindeer herders bred the fluffy white dogs to help with the herding, and to pull sleds when they moved. An alternate name for the breed, especially in Europe, is Bjelkier. Males typically weigh between 23–30 kilograms (51–66 lb), while females typically weigh 17–25 kilograms (37–55 lb).

Top 10 most beautiful fish in the world

Nature is the greatest artist. It created beautiful plants and animals, and here are ten of the most beautiful fish in the world. Many of them are protected species, so it would be more than expensive to have them.

10. Clown Trigger Fish

Clown triggerfish (Balistoides conspicillum), also known as the bigspotted triggerfish, are demersal marine fish belonging to the family Balistidae, or commonly called triggerfish. The clown triggerfish is a small sized fish which grows up to 50 cm. Its body has a stock appearance, oval shape and compressed laterally. The head is large and represents approximately one third of the body length. The mouth is small, terminal and has strong teeth.

 

9. Symphysodon

Symphysodon discus, the Red discus, is a species of cichlid native to the Amazon Basin. This species grows to a length of 12.3 centimetres (4.8 in) SL. This species can also be found in the aquarium trade.

8. The rainbow parrotfish

The rainbow parrotfish (Scarus guacamaia) is a species of fish in the Scaridae family. Among the largest members of this family (the largest in the Atlantic), it reaches 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) in length. It is found at coral reefs, mangroves and sea grass beds in the Caribbeanand at Bermuda.

7. Mantis Shrimp

Mantis shrimp or stomatopods are marine crustaceans, the members of theorder Stomatopoda. They may reach 30 centimetres (12 in) in length, in exceptional cases up to 38 cm (15 in) has been recorded. The carapace of mantis shrimp covers only the rear part of the head and the first four segments of the thorax. Mantis shrimp appear in a variety of colours, from shades of browns to bright neon colours.

6. Moorish Idol

The Moorish idol, Zanclus cornutus (“crowned scythe”), is a small marine fish species, thesole extant representative of the family Zanclidae (from the Greek ζαγκίος, zagkios, “oblique”) in order Perciform. A common inhabitant of tropical to subtropical reefs and lagoons, the Moorish idol is notable for its wide distribution throughout the Indo-Pacific.


5. The Nudibranch

A nudibranch is a member of Nudibranchia, a group of soft-bodied,marine gastropod mollusks which shed their shell after their larval stage. They are noted for their often extraordinary colors and striking forms. There are more than 3,000 described species of nudibranchs.

4. The Lionfish

Pterois, commonly known as lionfish, is a genus of venomous marine fish found mostly in the Indo-Pacific. Pterois is characterized by conspicuous warning coloration with red, white, creamy, or black bands, showy pectoral fins and venomous spiky fin rays.[1][2] Pterois are classified into a number of different species, but Pterois radiata, Pterois volitans and Pterois miles are the most commonly studied.

3. The Clownfish

Clownfish or anemonefish are fishes from the subfamily Amphiprioninae in the family Pomacentridae. Thirty species are recognized, one in the genus Premnas, while the remaining are in the genus Amphiprion. In the wild they all form symbioticmutualisms with sea anemones. Depending on species, clownfish are overall yellow, orange, or a reddish or blackish color, and many show white bars or patches.

2. Juvenile Emperor Angelfish

Juveniles are dark blue with electric blue and white rings; adults have yellow and blue stripes, with black around the eyes. It takes about 24 to 30 months for an emperor angelfish to acquire its adult coloring. They grow to 40 cm (15.75 in) in length.

1. Mandarin Fish

The Mandarinfish or Mandarin dragonet (Synchiropus splendidus), is a small, brightly colored member of the dragonet family, which is popular in the saltwateraquarium trade. The mandarinfish is native to the Pacific, ranging approximately from the Ryukyu Islands south to Australia.

 

 

Top 10 most rare precious stones in the world

 

Everyone loves jewelry and precious stones, but there are some of them even more amazing than rubys and diamonds. Here we present you ten of the most expensive and rare precious stones in the world.
10. Jadeite

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral with composition NaAlSi2O6. It is monoclinic. It has aMohs hardness of about 6.5 to 7.0 depending on the composition. The mineral is dense, with a specific gravity of about 3.4. Jadeite forms solid solutions with other pyroxene endmembers such as augite and diopside (CaMg-rich endmembers), aegirine (NaFe endmember), and kosmochlor (NaCr endmember). Pyroxenes rich in both the jadeite and augite endmembers are known as omphacite.


9. Red Diamond

In mineralogy, diamond (from the ancient Greek αδάμας – adámas “unbreakable”) is ametastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of theface-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stablethan graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at standard conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material.

8. Blue Garnet

Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
Garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms but different chemical compositions. The different species are pyrope, almandine, spessartine, grossular(varieties of which are hessonite or cinnamon-stone and tsavorite), uvarovite andandradite. The garnets make up two solid solution series: pyrope-almandine-spessarite and uvarovite-grossular-andradite.

7. Serendibite

Serendibite was discovered at Gangapitiya, near Ambakotte, Sri Lanka, in 1902 by G.T. Prior and A.K. Coomaraswamy. Prior and Coomaraswamy named the mineral ‘serendibite,’ which is derived from ‘serendib,’ an old Arabic term for Sri Lanka.
Serendibite is rarely found as facet-grade material. Before the 2005 discovery of serendibite in Mogok, Myanmar, there were only 3 known faceted serendibites, which were from the original Sri Lankan find. The serendibite from Sri Lanka and Myanmar is believed to be the only sources for facet-grade material. Sri Lankan Serendibite was an attractive greenish or violet-blue, while the stones from Myanmar are dark black.

6. Musgravite
Musgravite, Be(Mg, Fe, Zn)2Al6O12,is a gemstone reportedly named after the Musgrave Ranges, Australia, where it was first discovered. It is a member of the taaffeite family of minerals.There are currently only eight known specimens in the world, at USD $35,000/Carat.

5. Painite

Painite is a very rare borate mineral. It was first found in Myanmar by British mineralogistand gem dealer Arthur C.D. Pain in the 1950s. When it was confirmed as a new mineral species, the mineral was named after him.
The chemical makeup of painite contains calcium, zirconium, boron, aluminium andoxygen (CaZrAl9O15(BO3)). The mineral also contains trace amounts of chromium andvanadium. Painite has an orange-red to brownish-red color similar to topaz due to trace amounts of iron.

4. Grandidierite

Grandidierite is a bluish mineral that transmits blue, green and white light. Half a carat costs about fifty thousand dollars. Painite was once considered to be the rarest mineral on the face of the earth. Although that is not the case anymore, it is still considered extremely rare. As of the year 2005, there were only twenty-five of these crystals found anywhere, but more seems to have been discovered in the time since.

3. Black Opal

Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica; its water content may range from 3% to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6% to 10%. Because of its amorphous character it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike the other crystalline forms of silica which are classed as minerals. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone,rhyolite, marl and basalt. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, which produces 97% of the world’s supply. This includes the production of the state of South Australia, which amounts to around 80% of the world’s supply.

2. Jeremejevite

Jeremejevite is a rare aluminium borate mineral with variable fluoride and hydroxideions. Its chemical formula is Al6B5O15(F,OH)3.
It was first described in 1883 for an occurrence on Mt. Soktui, Nerschinsk district, Adun-Chilon Mountains, Siberia. It was named after Russian mineralogist Pavel Vladimirovich Eremeev (Jeremejev, German) (1830–1899).

1. Red Beryl Emerald

In geology, beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with thechemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. Pure beryl is colorless, but it is frequently tinted by impurities; possible colors are green, blue, yellow, red, and white.

 

 

Top 10 statues all over the world

We present you ten of the most appreciated statues all over the world. You can contemplate them and understand more about their architecture, their meaning and the country they are in, because they represent it.

 

10. The Sphinx

The Great Sphinx of Giza, commonly referred to as the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion’s body and a human head) that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt.
It is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 metres (241 ft) long, 19.3 metres (63 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the Pharaoh Khafra(c. 2558–2532 BC).

9. The Pieta

The Pietà (1498–1499) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture byMichelangelo Buonarroti, housed in St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City. It is the first of a number of works of the same theme by the artist. The statue was commissioned for the French cardinal Jean de Billheres, who was a representative in Rome. The sculpture, in Carrara marble, was made for the cardinal’s funeral monument, but was moved to its current location, the first chapel on the right as one enters the basilica, in the 18th century. It is the only piece Michelangelo ever signed.

8. Tian Tan Buddha

Tian Tan Buddha, also known as the Big Buddha, is a large bronze statue of a BuddhaAmoghasiddhi, completed in 1993, and located at Ngong Ping, Lantau Island, in Hong Kong, China. The statue is located near Po Lin Monastery and symbolises the harmonious relationship between man and nature, people and religion. It is a major centre of Buddhismin Hong Kong, and is also a popular tourist attraction.


7. Virgen de Quito

In 1976, the Spanish artist Agustín de la Herrán Matorras was commissioned by the religious order of the Oblatesto build a 45-metre-tall aluminum monument of amadonna which was assembled on a high pedestal on the top of Panecillo. It is made of seven thousand pieces of aluminium. The monument was inaugurated on March 28, 1976, by the 11th archbishop of Quito,Pablo Muñoz Vega. The statue was engineered and erected by Anibal Lopez of Quito.


6. Motherland Calls

The Motherland Calls , also called Mother Motherland, Mother Motherland Is Calling, simply The Motherland, or The Mamayev Monument, is a statue in Mamayev Kurgan inVolgograd, Russia, commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad. It was designed by sculptor Yevgeny Vuchetich and structural engineer Nikolai Nikitin. Declared the largest statue in the world in 1967, it is the last non-religious statue to be declared the largest; every record holder since has been a Buddhism-related sculpture.


5. Maitreya Beopjusa

Golden Maitreya Statue of National Unification at Beopjusa is a 33-meter-high, 160-ton Buddha covered in 80kg of gold leaf erected in 1990 at a cost of $4 million.
Beopjusa , initially constructed in 553, is a head temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism situated on the slopes of Songnisan in Naesongni-myeon, Boeun County, in the province of Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea.

4. Mount Nemrut

The mountain lies 40 km (25 mi) north of Kahta, near Adıyaman. In 62 BC, KingAntiochus I Theos of Commagene built on the mountain top a tomb-sanctuary flanked by huge statues (8–9 m or 26–30 ft high) of himself, two lions, two eagles and variousGreek, Armenian, and Iranian gods, such as Hercules-Vahagn, Zeus-Aramazd or Oromasdes (associated with the Iranian god Ahura Mazda), Tyche, and Apollo-Mithras. These statues were once seated, with names of each god inscribed on them. The heads of the statues have at some stage been removed from their bodies, and they are now scattered throughout the site.

3. Moai

Moai are monolithic human figures carved by theRapa Nui people from rock on the Chilean Polynesian island of Easter Islandbetween the years 1250 and 1500. Nearly half are still at Rano Raraku, the main moai quarry, but hundreds were transported from there and set on stone platforms called ahu around the island’s perimeter. Almost all moai have overly large heads three-eighths the size of the whole statue. The moai are chiefly the living faces (aringa ora) of deified ancestors (aringa ora ata tepuna).The statues still gazed inland across their clan lands when Europeans first visited the island, but most were cast down during later conflicts between clans.

2. Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in the middle of New York Harbor, in Manhattan, New York City. The statue, designed by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886, was a gift to the United States from thepeople of France. The statue is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, theRoman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue is an icon of freedom and of the United States: a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving from abroad.


1. Christ the Redeemer

Christ the Redeemer is a statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; considered the largest Art Deco statue in the world and the 5th largest statue of Jesus in the world. It is 30 metres (98 ft) tall, not including its 8 metres (26 ft) pedestal, and its arms stretch 28 metres (92 ft) wide. It weighs 635 tonnes (625 long, 700 short tons), and is located at the peak of the 700-metre (2,300 ft) Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city. A symbol of Brazilian Christianity, the statue has become an icon for Rio de Janeiro and Brazil.

 

 

 

Top 10 endangered animal species

Everybody loves animals, but we have to show that love and to protect them, especially the endangered species. Now you can find out more about ten of the most important endangered species and why are them so important to our natural ballance.
10. Chinese giant salamander

The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is the largest salamander and largest amphibian in the world, reaching a length of 180 cm (6 ft), although it rarely – if ever – reaches that size today. It is endemic to rocky, mountain streams and lakes inChina, as well as Taiwan, probably as a result of introduction. It is consideredcritically endangered due to habitat loss, pollution, and overcollection, as it is considered a delicacy and used in folk medicine. It has been listed as one of the top 10 “focal species” in 2008 by the Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) project.


9. Siberian tiger

The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), also known as the Amur tiger, is a tigersubspecies inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region with a small subpopulation in southwest Primorye province in the Russian Far East. In 2005, there were 331–393 adult-subadult Amur tigers in this region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. The population has been stable for more than a decade due to intensive conservation efforts, but partial surveys conducted after 2005 indicate that the Russian tiger population is declining.


8. Leatherback sea turtle

The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), sometimes called the lute turtle, is the largest of all living turtles (as well as the largest extant sea turtle) and is the fourth largest modern reptile behind three crocodilians. It is the only living species in the genusDermochelys. It can easily be differentiated from other modern sea turtles by its lack of abony shell. Instead, its carapace is covered by skin and oily flesh. Dermochelys coriacea is the only extant member of the family Dermochelyidae.


7. Addax

The addax (Addax nasomaculatus), also known as the white antelope and the screwhorn antelope, is an antelope of the genus Addax, that lives in the Sahara desert. It was first described by Henri de Blainville in 1816. As suggested by its alternative name, this pale antelope has long, twisted horns – typically 55 to 80 cm (22 to 31 in) in females and 70 to 85 cm (28 to 33 in) in males. Males stand from 105 to 115 cm (41 to 45 in) at the shoulder, with females at 95 to 110 cm (37 to 43 in). They are sexually dimorphic, as the females are smaller than males. The colour of the coat depends on the season – in the winter, it is greyish-brown with white hindquarters and legs, and long, brown hair on the head, neck, and shoulders; in the summer, the coat turns almost completely white or sandy blonde.

6. Philippine Eagle

The Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi), also known as the Monkey-eating Eagle, is an eagle of the family Accipitridae endemic to forests in the Philippines. It has brown and white-coloured plumage, and a shaggy crest, and generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kilograms (10 to 18 lb). It is considered the largest of the extant eagles in the world in terms of length, with the Steller’s Sea Eagle and the Harpy Eagle being larger in terms of weight and bulk.


5. Kakapo

The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (Gray, 1845), also called owl parrot, is a species of large, flightless, nocturnal, ground dwelling parrot of the super-family Strigopoidea endemic to New Zealand. It has finely blotched yellow-green plumage, a distinct facial disc of sensory, vibrissa-like feathers, a large grey beak, short legs, large feet, and wings and a tail of relatively short length.


4. North Pacific Right Whale

The North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) is a very large, robust baleen whalespecies that is now extremely rare and endangered. The Northeast Pacific subpopulation, which summers in the southeastern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska, may have no more than 50 animals. A western subpopulation that summers in the Sea of Okhotsk between the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island appears to number in the low hundreds of animals. Prior to commercial whaling in the North Pacific (i.e. pre-1835) the populations in the North Pacific probably were over 20,000 animals.


3. Javan Rhinoceros

The Javan rhinoceros (more precisely Sunda rhinoceros) or lesser one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is a member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It belongs to the same genus as the Indian rhinoceros, and has similar mosaicked skin which resembles armour, but at 3.1–3.2 m (10–10.5 feet) in length and 1.4–1.7 m (4.6–5.8 ft) in height, it is smaller (in fact, it is closer in size to theblack rhinoceros of the genus Diceros). Its horn is usually less than 25 cm (10 inches), smaller than those of the other rhino species.


2. Ivory- Billed Woodpecker

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) is one of the largestwoodpeckers in the world, at roughly 20 inches in length and 30 inches in wingspan. It was native to the virgin forests of the southeastern United States(along with a separate subspecies native to Cuba). Due to habitat destruction, and to a lesser extent hunting, its numbers have dwindled to the point where it is uncertain whether any remain, though there have been reports that it has been seen again.


1. Western Lowland Gorilla

The western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) is a subspecies of the western gorilla(Gorilla gorilla) that lives in montane, primary, and secondary forests and lowland swamps in central Africa in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Equatorial Guinea andGabon. It is the gorilla usually found in zoos. Adult male Gorillas are prone tocardiomyopathy, a degenerative heart disease.


Improve your general knowledge by finding out more about ten of the most important endangered animal species. They are protected in their natural habitats by several laws.

Top 10 engineering schools in U.S.

For any one aspiring to study in one of the top engineering schools, it is always better to have a before hand knowledge about them. Each of the listed top 10 engineering schools, have recognized and well distinguished professors and facilities.
This top 10 engineering schools in US 2012 is made by our team of experts based on our list of criteria .

 

10. The California Institute of technology: The popularly known Caltech generally has a ranking high up the list of engineering schools. Located in Pasadena, California, this college with its high curriculum standards is a sure target for any deserving candidate.

9. Carnegie Mellon University This is one of the top ranked colleges, which not only focus over its engineering and science courses, but also its arts department as well. This mid sized university, located in Pennsylvania is strict in its selecting procedures and releases students well versed in their fields.

8. Cornell University:  The beautiful hill side location of this college is an added on advantage to its excellent faculty foundation. The Cornell also ranks among the Ivy League institutions of higher education for its engineering and agricultural departments.

7. Georgia Institute of Technology: The Georgia Tech is one of the colleges which consistently rank among the top public institutes. The science and engineering sectors form the basis of its foundation and also compete in the intercollegiate sports.

6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology:  The strength of MIT can hardly be doubted. With a campus lying across the Charles River, this college has definitely booked its place as the number one.

5. Purdue University: A store of above 40,000 students this West Lafayette based college, champions in over 200 academic courses. Apart from this it also tops in athletic being a part of the Big Ten Athletic team.

4. Stanford University: One of the most competitive teaching universities, Stanford is undoubtedly the best in the West Coast. The high engineering standards of this college makes it flocked by students all over.

3. University of California: Berkeley is always looked up to, for providing students with a liberal and vibrant outlook. The college based around San Francisco Bay region, boasts of its high talent in the humanities and engineering.   

2. University of Michigan: Another top class public academy is the University of Michigan based in Ann Arbor Michigan. The wide range of academic courses, admitting up to 40000 students, is compliments by its inclusion in the Big Ten Athletic teams.

1. University of Illinois: This well known public teaching and researching institution, runs through the Urbana and Champaign cities. This university is also entitled to the Big Ten seminar. Besides this it is outstanding engineering school housing over 42000 students.

Top 10 Longest Words [ENGLISH]

top-10-longest-words
top-10-longest-words

 

Did you ever asked yourself what are the top 10 longest words in the world?  We will answer your question bellow.
It is an interesting thing how they appeared and who is using them, some of them are that long that it will take an hour to spell them right.

Two chemical terms (3,641 and 1,913 letters long) have appeared in the Guinness Book of World Records. They were withdrawn because they have never been used by chemists, and there is no theoretical limit to the length of possible legitimate chemical terms. A DNA molecule could have a name of over 1,000,000,000 letters if it was written out in full.

 

 

 

 

Here they are:

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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 1

(1,185) ACETYL­SERYL­TYROSYL­SERYL­ISO­LEUCYL­THREONYL­SERYL­PROLYL­SERYL­GLUTAMINYL­PHENYL­ALANYL­VALYL­PHENYL­ALANYL­LEUCYL­SERYL­SERYL­VALYL­TRYPTOPHYL­ALANYL­ASPARTYL­PROLYL­ISOLEUCYL­GLUTAMYL­LEUCYL­LEUCYL­ASPARAGINYL­VALYL­CYSTEINYL­THREONYL­SERYL­SERYL­LEUCYL­GLYCYL­ASPARAGINYL­GLUTAMINYL­PHENYL­ALANYL­GLUTAMINYL­THREONYL­GLUTAMINYL­GLUTAMINYL­ALANYL­ARGINYL­THREONYL­THREONYL­GLUTAMINYL­VALYL­GLUTAMINYL­GLUTAMINYL­PHENYL­ALANYL­SERYL­GLUTAMINYL­VALYL­TRYPTOPHYL­LYSYL­PROLYL­PHENYL­ALANYL­PROLYL­GLUTAMINYL­SERYL­THREONYL­VALYL­ARGINYL­PHENYL­ALANYL­PROLYL­GLYCYL­ASPARTYL­VALYL­TYROSYL­LYSYL­VALYL­TYROSYL­ARGINYL­TYROSYL­ASPARAGINYL­ALANYL­VALYL­LEUCYL­ASPARTYL­PROLYL­LEUCYL­ISOLEUCYL­THREONYL­ALANYL­LEUCYL­LEUCYL­GLYCYL­THREONYL­PHENYL­ALANYL­ASPARTYL­THREONYL­ARGINYL­ASPARAGINYL­ARGINYL­ISOLEUCYL­ISOLEUCYL­GLUTAMYL­VALYL­GLUTAMYL­ASPARAGINYL­GLUTAMINYL­GLUTAMINYL­SERYL­PROLYL­THREONYL­THREONYL­ALANYL­GLUTAMYL­THREONYL­LEUCYL­ASPARTYL­ALANYL­THREONYL­ARGINYL­ARGINYL­VALYL­ASPARTYL­ASPARTYL­ALANYL­THREONYL­VALYL­ALANYL­ISOLEUCYL­ARGINYL­SERYL­ALANYL­ASPARAGINYL­ISOLEUCYL­ASPARAGINYL­LEUCYL­VALYL­ASPARAGINYL­GLUTAMYL­LEUCYL­VALYL­ARGINYL­GLYCYL­THREONYL­GLYCYL­LEUCYL­TYROSYL­ASPARAGINYL­GLUTAMINYL­ASPARAGINYL­THREONYL­PHENYL­ALANYL­GLUTAMYL­SERYL­METHIONYL­SERYL­GLYCYL­LEUCYL­VALYL­TRYPTOPHYL­THREONYL­SERYL­ALANYL­PROLYL­ALANYL­SERINE = Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Dahlemense Strain.
This word has appeared in the American Chemical Society’s Chemical Abstracts and is thus considered by some to be the longest real word.

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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 2

(85) TAUMATA­WHAKA­TANGI­HANGA­KOAUAU­O­TAMATEA­TURIPUKAKA­PIKI­MAUNGA­HORO­NUKU­POKAI­WHENUA­KITANA­TAHU
A hill in New Zealand. This Maori name was in general use, but is now generally abbreviated to Taumata. The name means: the summit of the hill, where Tamatea, who is known as the land eater, slid down, climbed up and swallowed mountains, played on his nose flute to his loved one.
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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 3

(66) GORSA­FAWDDACH­AIDRAIGODAN­HEDDO­GLEDDOLON­PENRHYN­AREUR­DRAETH­CEREDIGION
A town in Wales. The name means: the Mawddach station and its dragon teeth at the Northern Penrhyn Road on the golden beach of Cardigan bay.

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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 4

(58) LLAN­FAIR­PWLL­GWYN­GYLL­GOGERY­CHWYRN­DROBWLL­LLANTY­SILIO­GOGO­GOCH
A town in North Wales. The name roughly translates as: St. Mary’s Church in the hollow of the white hazel near to the rapid whirlpool of Llantysilio of the red cave. It is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records.

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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 5

(45) PNEUMONO­ULTRA­MICRO­SCOPIC­SILICO­VOLCANO­CONIOSIS (also spelled PNEUMONO­ULTRA­MICRO­SCOPIC­SILICO­VOLCANO­KONIOSIS) a lung disease caused by breathing in particles of siliceous volcanic dust.
This is the longest word in any English dictionary. However, it was coined by Everett Smith, the President of The National Puzzlers’ League, in 1935 purely for the purpose of inventing a new “longest word”. The Oxford English Dictionary described the word as factitious. Nevertheless it also appears in the Webster’sRandom House, and Chambers dictionaries.

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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 6

(41) CHAR­GOGAGOG­MAN­CHAR­GOGAGOG­CHAR­BUNA­GUNGAMOG
Another name for Lake Webster in Massachusetts. Probably the longest name in the United States.

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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 7

(39) TETRA­METHYL­DIAMINO­BENZHYDRYL­PHOSPHINOUS = a type of acid.
This is the longest chemical term in the Oxford English Dictionary (2nd Ed.). It does not have its own entry but appears under a citation for another word.

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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 8

(37) HEPATICO­CHOLANGIO­CHOLECYST­ENTERO­STOMIES a surgical creation of a connection between the gall bladder and a hepatic duct and between the intestine and the gall bladder.
This is the longest word in Gould’s Medical Dictionary.

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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 9

(34) SUPER­CALI­FRAGI­LISTIC­EXPI­ALI­DOCIOUS song title from the Walt Disney movie Mary Poppins.
It is in the Oxford English Dictionary.

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TOP 10 LONGEST WORDS: 10

(30) HIPPOPOTO­MONSTRO­SESQUIPED­AL­IAN pertaining to a very long word.
From Mrs. Byrne’s Dictionary of Unusual, Obscure and Preposterous Words.