Everyone loves jewelry and precious stones, but there are some of them even more amazing than rubys and diamonds. Here we present you ten of the most expensive and rare precious stones in the world.
Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral with composition NaAlSi2O6. It is monoclinic. It has aMohs hardness of about 6.5 to 7.0 depending on the composition. The mineral is dense, with a specific gravity of about 3.4. Jadeite forms solid solutions with other pyroxene endmembers such as augite and diopside (CaMg-rich endmembers), aegirine (NaFe endmember), and kosmochlor (NaCr endmember). Pyroxenes rich in both the jadeite and augite endmembers are known as omphacite.
In mineralogy, diamond (from the ancient Greek αδάμας – adámas “unbreakable”) is ametastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of theface-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stablethan graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at standard conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material.
8. Blue Garnet
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
Garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms but different chemical compositions. The different species are pyrope, almandine, spessartine, grossular(varieties of which are hessonite or cinnamon-stone and tsavorite), uvarovite andandradite. The garnets make up two solid solution series: pyrope-almandine-spessarite and uvarovite-grossular-andradite.
Serendibite was discovered at Gangapitiya, near Ambakotte, Sri Lanka, in 1902 by G.T. Prior and A.K. Coomaraswamy. Prior and Coomaraswamy named the mineral ‘serendibite,’ which is derived from ‘serendib,’ an old Arabic term for Sri Lanka.
Serendibite is rarely found as facet-grade material. Before the 2005 discovery of serendibite in Mogok, Myanmar, there were only 3 known faceted serendibites, which were from the original Sri Lankan find. The serendibite from Sri Lanka and Myanmar is believed to be the only sources for facet-grade material. Sri Lankan Serendibite was an attractive greenish or violet-blue, while the stones from Myanmar are dark black.
Musgravite, Be(Mg, Fe, Zn)2Al6O12,is a gemstone reportedly named after the Musgrave Ranges, Australia, where it was first discovered. It is a member of the taaffeite family of minerals.There are currently only eight known specimens in the world, at USD $35,000/Carat.
Painite is a very rare borate mineral. It was first found in Myanmar by British mineralogistand gem dealer Arthur C.D. Pain in the 1950s. When it was confirmed as a new mineral species, the mineral was named after him.
The chemical makeup of painite contains calcium, zirconium, boron, aluminium andoxygen (CaZrAl9O15(BO3)). The mineral also contains trace amounts of chromium andvanadium. Painite has an orange-red to brownish-red color similar to topaz due to trace amounts of iron.
Grandidierite is a bluish mineral that transmits blue, green and white light. Half a carat costs about fifty thousand dollars. Painite was once considered to be the rarest mineral on the face of the earth. Although that is not the case anymore, it is still considered extremely rare. As of the year 2005, there were only twenty-five of these crystals found anywhere, but more seems to have been discovered in the time since.
3. Black Opal
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica; its water content may range from 3% to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6% to 10%. Because of its amorphous character it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike the other crystalline forms of silica which are classed as minerals. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone,rhyolite, marl and basalt. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, which produces 97% of the world’s supply. This includes the production of the state of South Australia, which amounts to around 80% of the world’s supply.
Jeremejevite is a rare aluminium borate mineral with variable fluoride and hydroxideions. Its chemical formula is Al6B5O15(F,OH)3.
It was first described in 1883 for an occurrence on Mt. Soktui, Nerschinsk district, Adun-Chilon Mountains, Siberia. It was named after Russian mineralogist Pavel Vladimirovich Eremeev (Jeremejev, German) (1830–1899).
1. Red Beryl Emerald
In geology, beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with thechemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. Terminated crystals are relatively rare. Pure beryl is colorless, but it is frequently tinted by impurities; possible colors are green, blue, yellow, red, and white.